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The means of expressing emotional colour in Russian language

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Автор(ы): Sarieva Zamira
Рубрика: Филологические науки
Журнал: «Евразийский Научный Журнал №12 2023»  (декабрь, 2023)
Количество просмотров статьи: 122
Показать PDF версию The means of expressing emotional colour in Russian language

Sariyeva Zamira
Termiz state university. Uzbekistan

Introduction.

Different languages have different ways of expressing meaning, denote “emotional colour”. In my work I will try to reveal the specific features of Russian language in comparison with Uzbek, Italian and French languages according to the place of the verb in the sentence and not only. In order to make comparison of grammar structure and pragmatic analysis of utterances more wide, I will support my arguments with examples from different languages .

The actuality of my work is that it reveals the relationship between grammar structure and pragmatic meaning of the Russian language in the example of the sentence structure and position of the verb in the sentence, besides the work deals with the paradigm of expressing meaning through speaker’s and listener’s interaction.

The aim of the work is to analyze the pragmatic function of the verb according to context in Russian and in other languages. Research method is qualitative.

The object of the work is context dealing with the word order ( order of the verb in the utterance) in expressing interpretation of the utterance.

Key words: pragmatic analysis, word order, meta communicative statement, locutive and illocutive verbs, grammar features of the verbs.

In spite of English language, where word order in positive sentences obey the structure: subject +verb. Russian language has quite flexible structure. That is it can be : subject +verb + modifier, verb+ subject + modifier or verb+ modifier. The order of the speech members can change the meaning of the sentence. But, different kind of changes in order like examples above do not have an impact on the grammar meaning of the sentence. So, even with all changes in structure, it is still correct as all grammar rules are not “broken”. And the order of the sentence is considered to be correct as all of them is possible and play particular role in expressing cognitive and emotional meaning of the utterances of the speaker.

In my work I will qualitative method of analysis based on comparison of datum, provided by different authors and examples on different languages. The instrument of the work is investigation and comparison of datum from various sources, that are 10 scientific articles on relevant theme.

One of these articles written by Kuzmichova Irina “Locutive verbs in non-locutive use” reveals some features of the theme using pragmatic analysis.

“Locutive verbs in the English and Russian languages in their quasi-locutive use in terms of the discourse theory of metacommunication are the subject matter of studying in the article. The pragmatic functions of metacommunicative predicates denoted by locutive verbs tend to be of three kinds: speech dominance of the Speaker; the Speakers expression of his emotive perception of a communicative situation; self-representation of the speaker”. I. Kuzmichova.

In her article Kuzmichova made examples on “emotional colour” of verbs and verb tenses in Russian and English languages. Such as:

" ... What’s de good of such a book, I ask you?" He banded the table.

“Какой смысл в такой книги, спрашиваю я вас?”- Он стукнул кулаком по столу. (rus)

/ kakoj smisl etoj knigi, sprashivayu ja vas ?/

In both examples the author paid attention to the verb “ask” (спрашиваю) . Here the affixation “ю” denotes first person singular. There can be another translation, but with changes in word order: “Какой смысл в такой книги,я вас спросил?” / kakoj smisl etoy knigi ya vas sprosil/

Here the author used the past tense of the verb “ask” (спросил). According to the opinion of the author, in the second example the utterance loses its emotional effect. Here the author pays attention on two factors that provide the emotional meaning of the utterance. First one is the choice of the verb tense, the author used present tense, not past. The second one is the word order of the utterance : " I ask you" comes at the end (the author denoted this part as meta communicative statement) according to the opinion of the author, that is word order of the utterance that provide its emotional colour, besides make strong emphasis on the speaker’s opinion, as denotes his position in the discussion. In order to support her argument that word order of the utterance is essential in denoting emotional colour she suggests that the second example “Какой смысл в такой книги, я вас спросил?” / kakoj smisl etoy knigi ya vas sprosil/ has no any emotional colour and has just neutral meaning. In conclusion of her work Kuzmichova suggested that the specific features in the function of the locutive verbs are common and universal in spite of language and linguists should pay more attention on locutive functions of the verb and their role in meta communication.

The author of another relevant article Tsaturyan suggested that the verb plays the main role in the utterance and the verb is the center of the structural organization. The author supposed that in order to analyse features of the verb we need to take into consideration the type of relationship among the participants in the situation, the results of the action. In her article Tsaturyan paid attention on the English verb “to be” and its constructions with different prepositions, she considers prepositions as linking words in the utterance, so in her article Tsaturyan supposed semantic features of the verb to be the main aspect in denoting different kind of meaning, as well as emotional colour also. She argued that semantic meaning of the verb is the most significant and it is the center of the utterance. Unlike Tsaturyan’s opinion Mashirenko suggested that the word order is the most important in grammar investigations, word order is the central point in syntax. In her workMashirenko compared Russian and German languages according their word order features. As the source for the analysis the author chose text from Germanweather forecast and instructions. In her work the author used the method of comparison and investigation of particular texts. So, Mashiren-ko put word order in the center of cognitive meaning and considers this factor as the main in pragmatic analysis.Here is another factor that of course should be considered, the specific feature of languages. As in the first article mentioned above there was comparison of Russian and English languages and in another one Russian and German. Of course, there are a number of differences among these and other languages. It is also important that many factors, such as grammar features, are common for one language and does not exist in others. For example in English practically there is no conjugation of the verb. It is very rare and have just several examples, such as “to be”, but in Russian language conjugation of the verb is common grammar rule. In my opinion, word order certainly plays a great role in linguistics and particularly in pragmatics. Although, different languages may use different means in denoting such aspects as emotional colour, denoting social relationship between speaker and listener. Besides, Mashirenko limited the scape of examples by using texts from instructions. Although, the field of investigation, in the mean of examples, was limited it does not mean that conclusion, that the author had made in her article are not common in other contexts also. So, all of the articles mentioned above can be considered to be right in specific questions, as different languages need different approaches.

The author of another scientific article concerning the theme, Suleymanova paid attention on pragmatic features of the verbs. In her work she considered illocutive and locutive features of the verbs. She considered that many questions on pragmatics still remains without answers in spite of different approaches for the pragmatic analysis, such as the theory of speech acts, the theory of relevance etc. But, this opinion was not proven in article by E.Komleva. She wrote about features of illocutive verbs in German language, in the example of the verb “bitten” (ask) she revealed performative and propositional aspects of these verbs.

To analyze all arguments, mentioned above and share my opinion on this theme, based on my experience in some foreign languages, I can say that it is hardly possible to construct a general, linguistic framework for all of the languages in the world. Why? For a number of reasons, such as specific grammar features of the languages, tradition and even mentality of the people, who use it.

For example: In English “hunger” considers as a condition. For that reason " to be " is used:

I am hungry. “am” is the form of the verb “to be”.

In French and Italian languages condition of hunger considers as possession so the verb " to have" is used: “avere” Italian and " avoir" French. So the sentence : “I am hungry” is translated as “Ho fame” in Italian and " J’ai faim" in French. In Uzbek language this sentence is translated as: “Men ochqoldim” which in its turn has the meaning : " I become hungry“. In Russian “Я голоден” /Ja goloden/, but there is common feature in these languages. All of these sentences has the construction: S+V, except Italian language where personal pronoun is usually omitted, because conjugated form of the verb “avere” denotes the third person singular. But on the other hand there are differences in grammar of these language. If show particular difference according to the above mentioned examples, linking verb “to be” is not translated into Russian and Uzbek languages.Besides, differences in grammar there is another question relevant to the theme. Can we use general approach to express emotional colour in these different languages? That is hardly possible. For example: How can we make utterance more emotional and make emphasis on our opinion in the utterances like: “I think”. In Italian it is enough to use personal pronoun “I” “Io”, as in this language the personal pronouns are not usually used. Because, conjugated form of the verb denoted number and person of the subject. Italian verb “pensare” (to think) in first person singular has the form " Penso“, so “Penso” is translated as " I think". If we want to make emphasis it is enough to say " Iopenso“. On the other hand, in French language in order to make emphasison the utterance and attract attention on “my opinion” I can use pronoun “moi” (me): " Moi, Je penseque..." ( I think that...). " I think" is usually translated as “Menimcha” ( also can be translated as " in my opinion" or " in my way“)

Conclusion.

Based on all of the datum provide in scientific articles,we can say that the fact of presence specific and unique features of every language becomes more obvious. The mean of giving information, communication differs in various languages. I have studied the features and means of expressing emotional colour in Russian language, but my work is not limited by Russian language it also concerns French, German, Russian and English languages. It is also obvious that to study this field of pragmatics also deals with other branches of linguistics, such as stylistics, grammar, lexicology etc. Other factors as culture, tradition and mentality of the people who speak this language also have influence on how the emotional colour is expressed. In order to study this theme and reveal the means of denoting emotional colour in Russian language I have chosen the mean of comparison of Russian with French, German, Uzbek and English languages, as study of particular language in isolating does not provide conclusion on this theme.

Reference:

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