Срочная публикация научной статьи
Termez state university.
Key words: category, pronominal class, contradiction, phenomena
The grammatical category of the gender in modern English differs in many ways from Old English. Due to the many simplifications of the language, many researchers believe that there is no category of the gender in English.
For example, B.A. Ilish argues that the category of gender as a grammatical category of gender in the English language does not exist.
The relevance of the topic is determined by the increasing interest in this linguistic phenomenon due to changes in the discharge characteristic of pronouns and the definition of its main functions (clarifying and substitutive), which are reflected in the noun characteristic.
The problem of determining gender in modern English has its related and long history. The category of the grammatical gender — masculine, feminine, and neuter— was inherent in Old English nouns: mona- moon, tigol- brick — feminine, scip- ship, eage — eye — neuter. The gender category of nouns has finally disappeared in the language of the second half of the 17th century. The masculine is preserved only for males, the feminine — for females, and all concepts and objects, and even animals, are considered to be neuter nouns pronouncing it.
In the English language nouns and pronouns possess the category of the gender . There are three genders in it: masculine, feminine and neuter . For example:
— masculine- father, he , son, boy, king, brother.
— Feminine- she, mother, daughter, girl, queen, sister
As for the neuter gender , all animate and inanimate nouns are attributed to it ,(subjects, phenomena and animals), which can refer to both female and male ( driver, sheep, child, monarch)
It should be noted that some authors distinguish four genders: masculine, feminine, neuter and general. To the general gender, in their opinion, are related animate nouns that can refer to both male and female ( doctor, baby, horse).
The category of gender should be considered in the Russian language. There are four types of grammatical gender: masculine, feminine, neuter and general. The subject of analysis is the fact that in different languages the same noun can have a different gender. In Russian language every word has its particular gender. For native speakers the definition of gender is not difficult, since it is laid from childhood . However , the overwhelming majority of people studying Russian as a foreign language face a problem when determining the gender.There are criteria by which we define the gender of nouns. Namely:
1. Masculine are nouns:
* denoting males: отец, гражданин, юноша, старец;
*with a basis on a soft consonant, and also on-ш, and on-ж, having endings -а, -я in the genitive singular : конь, пляж.
* the word путь.
2. Feminine are nouns:
* denoting females:внучка, гостья, девушка, ученица;
* with ending -а, -я in the nominative singular:радуга, заря
* with the basis, on a soft consonant and also on-ж and on- ш having ending -и in the genitive singular( the word путь is exception):тень,мышь.
3. Neuter are nouns:
* having ending -о(е) in the Nominative singular : облако , сомнение;
* ending with -мя ( ten words): имя, время, племя, знамя, бремя, семя, стремя, темя ,пламя, вымя.
* the word дитя.
There are a number of words (for example , штель(feminine) and тополь (masculine) , whose morphological structure in the nominative case is absolutely the same. In such cases , the alien will need a dictionary.
Consider the nouns of the general gender : недотрога , засоня, невежа. . The gender of such kind of nouns is determined in accordance to the situation . If we are talking about a male , it is masculine( the same happens to the feminine).
Separately, the essential ones denoting a profession or position should be considered : judge, teacher, sculptor. However, they also call female faces because the corresponding forms of the feminine gender are absent. Such as, кассирша( cashier), библиотекарша ( librarian), кондукторша( conductor) formed from the masculine gender , are used in the conversational style of speec
Thus, having considered such a linguistic phenomenon as a gender of noun , we can say with certainty that this grammatical category in Russian has a fairly well-developed system.
Speaking of English we repeat that the topic of the grammatical gender of the noun is a problem for gender linguistics. The main feature of the gender as a grammatical category is that the noun must be consistent with other parts of speech dependent on it (adjectives, participles, ordinal numbers , pronouns, verbs in the past tense, as , for example, in Russian). But for an English noun devoid of morphological means of expression of the gender, it is impossible.