Mirzabdullaeva Dilkhumor Erkinovna
Doctoral student at Namangan state University,
Aliyeva Zulhumor Jabbor qizi,
a student of the Namangan state University,
The word “conflict” comes from the Latin conflictus-collision and is almost unchanged in other languages (conflict-English., conflit-Franz., konflikt-it. ). An analysis of the definitions of conflict adopted in various modern non-specialized encyclopedias reveals their similarity. As a rule, the content of the conflict is revealed through the following knowledge:
1. The state of open, often prolonged fighting, a battle or a war.
2.A state of disharmony between people, ideas, or interests; a clash of opposites.
3.Mental struggle arising as a result of simultaneous functioning of mutually exclusive impulses, desires and tendencies.
4. The opposition of characters or forces.
Some of the first scholars to address the conflict were Z. Freud, K. Jung, E. Erickson, K. Horney, E. Bern, K. Levin, D. Dollard, A. bandura, and L. Berkowitz.
The current trend in the study of interpersonal conflicts (Petrovskaya L. A., 1989; Shkil, 1990; Kovalev A., 1991; gryzunova, 1994; Malyuchenko, 1996; Leonov, 1996, 2002; Lavrinovich, 1999; Fokin, 2000; Grishina 2000; Egorova, 2001; Kozlov N., 2005; Kovalev, etc.) points to the need to synthesize intersubjective and subjective approaches, posing the problem of studying the intrapersonal structures of opponents in the conflict, mediating the choice of a strategy of behavior in the conflict.
Of all the periods of childhood, the most often the subject of attention of psychologists was adolescence, in which conflicts acquired a special significance (B. P. Kovalev).
Age periods, in addition to the features of mental and personal development, differ in the nature of the problems facing the individual, according to what typical difficulties, critical situations or crises a person experiences at a particular age.
Separate studies of Russian psychologists are devoted to the study of the nature of conflicts in the adolescent environment (Zhutikova N. V., 1988; Kirshbaum E. I., 1986; Orlov A. B., 1988; Belinskaya A. B., 2000; Kovalev B. P., Kondratieva S. V., Semchuk L. A., 2001; kishko M. V., 2003, etc.)
The problem of interpersonal conflicts, including adolescent conflicts and ways to resolve them, has been increasingly addressed by both psychologists and educators in Uzbekistan. Thus, the works Of M. Davletshin, G. Shaumarov, V. Karimova, sh. Baratov, N. Saginov, E. Gaziev, S. Akhunjanova, H. Karimov, R. Samarova, A. Kadyrova and others were devoted to regional and ethnopsychological features of interpersonal conflicts in various situations.
The research of philosophers and sociologists of the country (for example, R. Zhumaev, A. Holbekov, A. Begmatova, M. Bekmuradov, etc.) was devoted to the nature of conflicts and ways of their regulation in production conditions, as well as in the social system as a whole.
In the scientific literature, both Russian, domestic and foreign, there are many approaches to the study of conflict, but in recent years there has been interest in the applied aspect of this socio-psychological direction-the study of the behavior of adolescents in conflict situations (I. I. Rydanova, D. I. Feldstein, L. I. Vorobyova, A. A. Ershova, E. I. Sumenko, D. P. Kaidalov).
The basis of a conflict situation in the school environment can be either conflicting positions of its participants on any occasion, or their opposite goals and means of achieving them in the given circumstances, or a mismatch of interests, desires, and drives.
Considering the conflict as an effective means of educational influence of the individual, the teenager, in particular, D. F. Moretsky points out that overcoming and prevention of conflict situations in the adolescent environment is possible only on the basis of special psychological and pedagogical knowledge and corresponding skills.
Programs for conflict resolution in the form of various socio-psychological trainings appeared in schools as a response to the growth of conflicts between students in General, including teenagers. These programmes are based on research in conflict resolution and preventive measures.
Programs focus on the constructive resolution of conflicts of interest that exist when the actions of one person in an effort to achieve their goals are mixed with the actions of another person who is also trying to achieve their goals (Deutsch, 1973).
Various researchers (Zang, 1994, Rausch, 1993, Edleson,1981) emphasize the wide variety of results of conflict resolution programs. In General, students tend to perceive both negative and positive results of the conflict.
Thus, the formation of adequate behavior of adolescents in conflict situations is carried out not only through social and psychological training, but also in the process of training and education, when the teacher’s personality is significant in itself, is an authority for adolescents and affects the overall moral and psychological atmosphere in the classroom.
It is the teachers who are endowed with such psychological characteristics that build their pedagogical activity productively, having pedagogical intuition, they are able to form models of adequate behavior of adolescents in conflict situations.