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Kayumova Shakhnoza Kobiljonovna
A teacher of TerSU,
A student of TerSU
Translation trains to scorch flexibility for the most appropriate words to convey what is meant. Translation theory derives from comparative linguistics. It is mainly an aspect of semantics.
Translation is a craft consisting of replacing one statement in one language by the statement or message in another language. The American linguist Nida did much for the development of translation theory. In his books, almost every translation problem is discussed. He adapts transformational grammar to translation. He proposes eight model kernel sentences as transnational stages between source and target language structures.
Theoretical studies in translation have kept abreast with the recent advances in linguistics, which provided some new insights into the mechanism of translation and the factors determining it.
The theory of translation has benefited from new syntactic and semantic models in linguistics and from development of such hyphenated disciplines as psycho-and-sociolinguistics. Equally insightful was the contribution to the theory of translation by semiotics, a general theory of sign systems.
Every language has a specific system, which differs from that of any others. This is all the more so with respect to English, Uzbek and Russian, whose grammatical systems are typologically and genetically heterogeneous. English and Russian belong to the Germanic and Slavonic groups respectively in the Indo — European family of languages. The Uzbek language patronize to the Turkish group of the Altaic family. Concerning the morphological type both English and Russian are inflected, though the former is notable for its analytical character and the latter for its synthetic character in the main, Uzbek is an agglutinative language.
The choice of the way of approach to expressing the denotative meanings of the units of specifically national lexicon is strictly predetermined by some definite factors to which belong first of all the semantic and structural complexity (or similarity) of the units of the culturally biased specific lexicon of the source language. The choice of the method of translating may partly be influenced by the sphere of circulation of the specific notion in the source language. The meaning of specifically national units of lexicon can be conveyed by the following methods: 
By transcription or Transliteration Exclusively. The units of the nationally specific lexicon, whose meanings are rendered at the phonological level, usually belong to genuine internationalisms and comprise social and political units of lexicon in the main (cf. lord, lady, mister, shilling, Kazak, mirshab, kozi, etc.):
Сен такаббур худбин қозисан. — You’re a supercilious half-baked kozi.
By Transcription or Transliteration and Explication of Their Genuine.
Nationally Specific Meaning. An additional explication of genuine nationally specific meaning becomes necessary when the unit/notion of the culturally biased lexicon is introduced in the target language for the first time or when it is not yet known to the broad public of the target language readers/ listeners. The explanation may be given either in the translated passage/speech flow, where the culturally biased unit is used, or in a footnote -when a lengthy explication becomes necessary:
Тўйга келган келинларнинг ҳамаси тиллақош тақиб олган эдилар. — All brooms who come to the party, wear tillakosh (a jewelry for wearing on head only for brooms, and it is decorated with precious stones).
By Ways of Word-for-Word or Loan Translation. When the componential parts making up the units of the nationally specific lexicon are at the same time the main transparent bearers of their proper sense, expressed through their meaning, a faithful translation of such sense units may be achieved either by way of word-for-word translation or by way of loan translation.
Translated word-for-word are the specific national units of lexicon as first (second, third) reading — биринчи ўқилишданоқ (парламент билан боғлиқ); деворий газета — wall newspaper; кундалик дарслик китоб — student’s everyday record book.
The denotative meaning of many units of the specific national lexicon may be rendered by way of loan translating as well.
 Komissarov V.N. Koralova A.L. A Manual of translation from English into Russian M., Higher school, 1990.