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Khidirova Makhfuza Amirkulovna,
The teacher of Termez state university
Phraseology is a study of set or fixed expressions, such as idioms, phrasal verbs, and other types of multi-word lexical units.The theory of phraseology was laid in the works of A.A. Potebni, A.A.Shakhmatov,F.F.Fortunatov, E.D. Polivanova, S.I. Abakumova, and L.A. Bulakhovsky.
Animal component serves to highlight entities that play a role in people’s daily life, and to establish and maintain an individuality in society. Object of analysis of onomastics, animal component have been investigated by philosophers, logicians, anthropologists and psychologists, linguists. There are a great number of animal component in English phraseological units because of their great importance in human communication, where they are signs of cultural, linguistic, geographical, ethnic and social identity. Their analysis can offer an insight into the interplay between language and culture in phraseology.Among them phraseologies with dog play great role in human’s life.
Among all living-beings, only animals have particular habits, individual mode of life and type of behavior as human beings do. That is why words, which name the animals, are widely used by people to represent picturesque description of the inner world of the man and peculiarities of his behavior. Moreover, it is interesting for linguists that the names of the same animals can often imply different qualities in different languages, giving people completely opposite characteristics. For instance, in the Russian language — elephant symbolize a big, awkward man while for Indian people it has entirely opposite meaning: the elephant is a symbol of gracefulness, grace of movements. The word tortoise in Russian is the symbol of slow movements, but Chinese people use this word to denote an unfaithful wife. Some names of animals have stable picturesque content in one language and do not in another one. However, here we give some examples for phraseologies with the term dog:
· It is ill to waken sleeping dogs. Let sleeping dogs lie. — Do not wake up sleeping dogs. — Yopiq qozon yopiqligicha qolaversin. (Caution)
· Too much pudding will choke the dog. — Nafsi buzuq hayitda o’lar.(Greed)
· Every dog is a lion at home. — It ham o’z ko’chasida o’zini sher bilar. Xo’roz ham o’z katagida qichqiradi.(Arrogance, pride)
· Barking dogs seldom bite. — Itning indamasi yomon. Huradigan itlar kamdan-kam qopadi. Qopag’on it tishini ko’rsatmas.(Insolence)
· To live cat-and-dog life. — Live like a cat with a dog (always quarrel). — It mushukday yashamoq. Er — xotinning urushi, doka ro’molning qurishi.
It is obvious that in the category"Moral Qualities“, with dog terms the dominant for the ethnic mentality is caution as the most significant quality of character.
Thus, “Existence” the category of life experience dominates, which is an indicator of the empirical orientation of the assessment of the attitude to the characteristics of the national character. The least represented in the quantitative aspect are such components as everyday difficulties and bad luck, luck, but their presence also reflects certain linguistic peculiarities and features of the national character of the English.
· Better, be the head of a dog. — Arslonning dumi bo’lgandan ko’ra itning boshi bo’lgan afzal. Arslonnin go’ligi — sichqonning tirigi.( The situation in the society)
· The dog that trots about finds a bone. — Izlaganim kon topar. Qalovini topsang qor ham yonadi. ( Anxiety, fussiness)
· An old dog will learn no new tricks.-Qari it yangi hunar o’rganmas. It qarisa, yotgan yeridan xuradi. (Skills)
· One barking dog sets the whole street a-barking. — Bitta tirriq buzoq podani bulg’aydi.(Actions)
Thus, as a category “Behavior” dominant, one can single out the category characterizing human actions. Less categories are presented here such as punishment, censure and risk. However, all these categories to a certain extent reflect the characteristics of national thinking.Obviously, the most isolated in most categories are such lexical units as a dog among other animals.
Defining notions we suggest to consider the concept of the human’s character, which is representedby a significant number of paremies, which together constitute the “paremiological portret” of man (in our case, represented only by Uzbek and English paremias with the term “dog”). The following categories are included in the expanded classification: Moral qualities, Existence, Social, Emotional-mental states, Labor activity, Physical characteristics, Mental abilities, Moral and ethical ideas, Speech, Individuality.