KAYUMOVA SHAKHNOZA KOBILJONOVNA
Senior teacher of English Language and Literature Department
of the Termez State University
Summary: This article deals with study the peculiarities of written translation, some problems of translation, translation issues of legal texts from English into Uzbek.
Key words: translation, rendering, written translation, legal texts.
There are two terms corresponding to the Uzbek word „tarjima”: translation and interpretation. Those who discriminate between the terms refer the term ‘translation’ to the written text, and the term ‘interpretation’ to oral speech. However, the terms are polysemantic: to interpret might mean „to render or discuss the meaning of the text” — an outstanding British translation theorist P.Newmark, for example, states that „when a part of a text is important to the writer’s intention, but insufficiently determined semantically, the translator has to interpret”.
The term to translate is often referred to any (written or oral) manner of expression in another language.
We should also differentiate the terms translating and rendering. When we translate, we express in another language not only what is conveyed in the source text but also how it is done. In rendering, we only convey the ideas (the what) of the source text.
While speaking about translation firstly we should apply to the history of translation. The first translation is traced to ancient Egypt (about 3000 B.C.) But European tradition is supposed to have started in ancient Rome. I.Tronsky claims that ancient Greek literature had nothing to do with translating fiction. Of course, this statement concerns only literary translation, since ancient Greeks had well-developed trade and cultural relations with other countries and, therefore, needed translators and interpreters.
The second half of the 20th century has seen the in-depth study of translation, which is sometimes called Theory of Translation, Science of Translation, Translation Linguistics, or even Translatology. It has been claimed abroad that translation studies began in 1972 with Holmes’s paper presented at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics, „The Name and Nature of Translation Studies”.
However, unfortunately, European and American scholars seemed to have been unaware of the achievements of the Russian school of translation studies. Works by V. Komissarov, A. Shveitser, A. Fedorov and many others confirmed the status of translation studies as a discipline of its own even in the 1950s.
As we know, in general there are two types of translation: oral and written translation. The most obvious differences between written translation and interpreting are as follows: translators have time to polish their work, while interpreters have no time to refine their output; any supplementary knowledge, for example terminological or world knowledge, can be acquired during written translation but has to be acquired prior to interpreting.
While analyzing the translation of some legal texts from English into Uzbek we faced with translation issues of polysemantic words. For example, English word „afford” have following variants: 1. Рухсат бермоқ; 2. йўл қўймоқ; 3.бирор нима қилиш учун етарли имкониятга эга бўлмоқ.
In this case, translator faces difficulties in choosing necessary equivalent according to the context.
Some legal terms need description in translation in order to achieve semantic adequateness. For example, the English word „demur” is translated as „жиноий ишни ҳаракатдан тўхтатиш ҳақидаги қарорга нисбатан қилинган даъвога ҳуқуқий асосланган тарзда жавоб бериш”.
Faced with a legal text to translate, a legal translator must deal with the dual challenge of language and law, which he or she must reproduce as correctly as possible in the target language. This complex procedure of transferring from one language to another involves a number of risks inherent in language. That is why it is rather difficult to transfer the entire message of the source text from one language to another.
Summing up we can say that, written translation has it`s own regulations and history. This type of translation is very useful in rendering documents of business letters, documents of official style, works of belles- letters style and etc. As we have looked through written translation is used while rendering specialized texts as well.