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MECHANISMS OF FUNCTIONING OF STANDARD BRITISH AMERICAN ENGLISH IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

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Автор(ы): Хаитова Дилафруз Бекпулатовна
Рубрика: Филологические науки
Журнал: «Евразийский Научный Журнал №8 2021»  (август, 2021)
Количество просмотров статьи: 457
Показать PDF версию MECHANISMS OF FUNCTIONING OF STANDARD BRITISH AMERICAN ENGLISH IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION

Gafurova Kamila Ravshanovna,
teacher of English at the chair "English teaching methodology",
Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages, Uzbekistan

Abstract: The article focuses on the mechanisms of functioning and dissemination of Standard British American English (SBAE). The process of dissemination of SBAE is presented by the author in the form of a field model, the dynamics of which is determined by socio-cultural forces.

Key words: globalization, language of international communication, language contacts, language support, language planning, language policy.

Since the end of World War II, as the economic and political influence of the United States has increased, Standard British American English (SBAE) has become an international language. The spread of SBAE has both positive and negative consequences for the languages that come into contact with it. On the one hand, a common language brings obvious economic, cultural and educational benefits, on the other hand, it acts as an instrument of imperialism and puts in unequal conditions those who are not speakers of the lingua franca, since a single language in this case acts as an uncontested means of access to written sources and a wide audience. The current situation is based on the problem of interaction between a globalized culture, the main language of which is SBAE, and regional cultures, represented by autochthonous languages. Thus, the purpose of this work is to identify the mechanisms of functioning of the SBAE as a language of global culture in the context of contacts with other languages, as well as to determine the tendencies of its development within the framework of the globalization process.

Factors and mechanisms of the spread of SBAE

A number of global socio-economic changes and an increase in social mobility have led to the fact that now there is a “alignment of dialects”, ie. reduction of their historical diversity [1, p. 239]. Similar processes are taking place with different varieties of the English language in the world. Following the global trend towards globalization, the variants of the English language strive to align themselves within the ABAA, which may be caused by the general need for a means of international communication. Thus, SBAE remains a relatively stable language despite its global spread.

The dissemination process of SBAE is influenced by a number of factors that impede the ability to accurately predict it. A paradoxical situation arises when the future development of the most common language becomes the most difficult to predict. The vector of development of any language largely depends on global macroeconomic and sociocultural trends. This means that the formation of new centers of intensive economic growth, as well as macroeconomic changes will have an impact on the development of the SBAE. In addition, in the conditions of linguistic contacts, in the process of borrowing vocabulary, there is an effect of social factors, such as the social status of the speakers of the contacting languages, age, self-identification and attitude to their own language [2, p. 3]. Consequently, globally, the development of the SBAE is consistent with the vectors of development of the macroeconomic situation, and locally, to a greater extent with the social one.

Another factor influencing the process of dissemination of SBAE is its value, or demand, due to the economic, political, social or other benefits from its use. The value of any language depends not only on how much it is in demand, but also on such circumstances as the demographic situation, status and institutional support [1, p. 108]. Since the value of a language can be determined only in terms of contacts with other languages, then by analyzing such contacts, it is possible to establish the value of a language both for an individual and for the global linguistic community. This view correlates with the concept of the viability of a language: how widespread the language is within the community, and whether it will be used by its speakers in the future [ibid.].

SBAE propagation model

The spread of SBAE is directly related to the expansion of language contacts, an increase in the variability and proliferation of its functions on a global scale. In general, this process can be represented as a field model. This model is characterized by a division into a center and a periphery. The center is, in this case, a variant characterized by the most specialized set of elements for performing field functions. Such a set of the most characteristic elements is comparable to the standard for the language, in our case — SBAE. The elements located at the periphery are less frequent, and, accordingly, the peripheral variants contain fewer elements inherent in the standard. There is no clear boundary between the core and the periphery, and in the direction from the center to the periphery, the quantity and quality of standard elements decreases. If the SBAE is presented as the center of such a model, then its various regional and national variants are the periphery, and on the border of this field it interacts with other languages. Inside the field, we can observe the dynamics both in the direction from the center to the periphery, which is characterized by the fragmentation of the SBAE into new regional and national variants, and in the direction from the periphery to the center, due to the need for a single standard necessary to meet the needs of intercultural communication in the context of globalization of the world. culture and economic space. This model is based on the concept of the spread of the English language, presented by Braj Kachru in the form of three concentric circles. The inner circle of this concept includes countries where English is used as the first (native) language, the outer circle — countries where English, due to historical conditions, has one or another official status, and an expanding circle — countries where English is a foreign language.

Thus, the functioning of the SBAE is a rather contradictory and multifaceted process and can be studied only taking into account the parameters of the current global linguistic situation, which, in turn, can be conceptualized as a complex multi-level system that has a field structure and is influenced by socio-cultural and economic factors. The dynamics of this system can be represented in the framework of two forces: centripetal and centrifugal. These forces are the cause of certain trends in the development of the language, such as, for example, centralization, large-scale borrowing and variability. The presence of these tendencies is typical for all levels and sublevels of this system.

THE LIST OF USED LITERATURE

1. Meyerhoff M. Introducing sociolinguistics / Miriam Meyerhoff. — London [etc.] : Routledge, 2006. — XXIV, 320 p.

2. Crystal D. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language / David Crystal. — London [etc.] : BCA, 1995. — VII, 489 p.

3. Бахтин M. M. Слово в романе / M. M. Бахтин // Собр. соч. : в 7 т. / ред. С. Г. Бочаров, В. В. Кожинов. — М., 2012. — Т. 3. — С. 8–179.

4. Crystal D. English as a global language / David Crystal. — 2nd ed. — Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003. — XVI, 212 p.