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Lingua-cultural features of personal pronouns

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Автор(ы): Sarieva Zamira
Рубрика: Филологические науки
Журнал: «Евразийский Научный Журнал №12 2023»  (декабрь, 2023)
Количество просмотров статьи: 137
Показать PDF версию Lingua-cultural features of personal pronouns

Sariyeva Zamira

УДК 811.161.1’366 (021)

ББКШ 141.2-21

Abstract. For a long time,the traditional view of language as a closed system was dominated in linguistics. The language was considered as organized and developing in isolation from a person. Later the structuralist approach was replaced by the understanding that in order to study the structure of a language, it is necessary to consider the role of the speaker. Thus, the 20th century was marked by a general scientific desire to take into account the human factor in language, which led to the emergence of new sciences based on related ones (psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, anthropolinguistics, ethnolinguistics), which contributed to the study of speech activity and human as a center of communication. The same feature can be used towards the usage of the pronouns in Indonesian and Uzbek languages.

Key words: lingua-cultural features, pronouns, culture, pragmatics, grammar.

There are some pragmatic and socio-cultural features that cannot be denoted by the limit of grammar and syntactic feature. The pragmatic denotation like: respect, social status and kinship. For example: In Uzbek language there are two forms for the second person singular personal pronoun: “sen” and “siz” these two forms are translated as ‘you’ into English language. But, aside grammatical function, denoting second person singular, these forms have socio-cultural features to denote: “sen” — informal form of ‘you’, mostly used to refer the same age category or younger then the learner. “Siz” — formal form of ‘you’ is used in formal context or when referring to elder person. There is the need to analyse and consider the language not only as a form of denoting meaning and correct sentence structure but also consider the pragmatic features in order to avoid misunderstanding between speakers.

The direct emergence of socio-cultural features in semiotics, in terms of which the connection of linguistic meanings with the conceptual categories of human thinking and their cultural and social aspects are most clearly traced. The lexical system depicts the picture of the world created by the language, and, most importantly, its role in communication within society members. From this point of view, the grammatical system, at first glance, is less attractive for lingua-cultural research, but it is in it that the most common the results of categorization and structuring of information received by the society — the native speaker of a given language — in the process of its historical development.

Verbalization of mental knowledge in the grammatical system is carried out through the opposition of linguistic signs in various forms. For example affixation and words.

From this point of view the personal pronouns and their grammatical status has not yet received an unambiguous interpretation. Within the framework of traditional grammatical teachings, the main aspect of personal pronouns, such as role in communication between members of society, as personal pronouns fulfill not only grammar function within the sentence, but also represent the cultural aspect of conversation between speakers as members of that culture.

For example:

In Indonesian language the personal pronouns denoting the second person singular has two forms: “kamu” informal form and “anda” the formal form. The same concept can be seen in Uzbek language: “sen” informal form of ’you’, while “siz” is the formal one. In Russian language ’you’ also have two forms “ты” for informal usage and “вы” for formal one.

Based on what was mentioned above we can point out three features of pronouns: first, that these are special units of the “language system” and “functional units of speech” — words, which are “something shaped in a certain way, taking either more or less from the conceptual material of one’s thought as a whole, depending on the ‘culture’ of a given language”, which in the concept of F. de Saussure are units “relentlessly presented to our mind as something central in the entire mechanism of language” and in which “the act of cognition takes place”

Secondly, these are words that do not name anything, but only indicate objects, signs, quantities.

Do pronouns perform a nominative function?

There are two points of view: firstly, as already mentioned, all pronouns do not name anything, and therefore those researchers who recognize the nominative function only for words expressing concepts. But based on the points that were provided above we can see that personal pronouns also fulfill communicative and cultural “tasks” in the language. Thus, by function we understand not the syntactic role of the word as a member of the sentence, but its role in speech, in the process of communication. At the same time, an important methodological role, this is the opposition of significance “on the basis of functional-semantic mobility”, from which it describes that in such “hybrid” words as pronouns, the functional-semantic component is an organic unity, for example: fusion of semantics and functions. That is why in the previous aspect, when characterizing the semantics of pronouns, their functions were mentioned.

Thirdly, pronouns are a universal class of words known to all languages, and the phenomenon of pronouns, according to comparative studies, turned out to be characteristic of all studied languages. Besides, pronouns have a frequent usage within all contexts and materials. The first semantic feature of pronouns and pronominal words is emphasized in all dictionary reference literature, grammars and monographic works — a very high degree of generalization of their meaning. However, on the other hand, it turns out that the degree of generalization of pronominal words is not the same, or rather, it is gradual.


All these examples show the influence of “personal factor” on the usage of personal pronoun on the basis of three languages: Uzbek, Russian and Indonesian. The work considered lingua-cultural aspect of the personal pronoun, which creates significant difficulties for further theoretical constructions and developments. This is especially true for applied disciplines related to communication, the creation of logical and information systems, various kinds of translators, and artificial intelligence modeling.

When using natural languages in which special problems are created by pronouns — this generally considered as unit for all linguistic processors it must be said that with the strengthening of the anthropocentric paradigm in linguistics and the appeal to the “human factor in language”, the view of researchers on the nature of pronominal words has changed significantly. From the category of “secondary” parts of speech, performing the service functions of indication and substitution, pronouns moved to the number of the most significant categories of the language, the main whose function is the verbalization of global linguistic meanings. The semantics of pronominal words is no longer reduced to the “significance of the form” or to the function, a marker devoid of its own lexical meaning. On the contrary, it is understood as an accumulator and conductor of a set of typical denotative and non-denotative (actually grammatical) meanings and, moreover, as the outcome of the semantic structure of the language and its semantic categories.


1.Г.В. Федюнева Местоимения в контексте когнитивной лингвистики Институт языка, литературы и истории Коми научного центра УрО РАН, Сыктывкар


3. Sariyeva Zamira “Comparison of personal pronouns in Indonesian and Uzbek languages” “Academia Open” Vol 1 No 2 (2019): Vol 1 Issue 2, 2019 Education

4. Sariyeva Zamira"Lingua cultural features of personal pronouns in Indonesian and Uzbek languages"" Евразийский научный журнал" 2020. № 12