Rakhimova Marguba Khamzaevna,
teacher of English
at Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages,
Abstract: This article examines the concepts of systematics and the system-forming mechanism in language, speech and speech activity, without which the study of linguistic phenomena, categories and entire systems cannot do.
Key words: backbone mechanism; system; systematics; language; speech; speech activity; discourse; conceptualization; categorization
In the XX century. a systematic approach in the study of various fields of knowledge occupies one of the leading places in scientific knowledge. Its appearance in various sciences is associated with the formulation of new scientific problems that relate to the problems of the organization and functioning of complex objects. Presenting the object of study as an internally and externally ordered organization, it is more convenient and efficient for a scientist to operate with the concept of a system, the boundaries and composition of which are far from obvious. The system requires special research on a case-by-case basis.
The Austrian biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy is considered the founder of the systems approach in science. The study of the organization of living systems led the scientist to the creation of the theory of open systems. The biological organism was considered by him as a single whole — a system. The author created a general theory of systems: “I could not stop on the once chosen path and was forced to come to an even greater generalization, which I called the general theory of systems” [Bertalanfi, 1969, 28], the scientist writes. The author investigated many systems: biological, physical, chemical, mathematical, social, etc. However, the development of research in this direction has shown that the totality of problems in the methodology of systems research significantly exceeds the scope of problems of general systems theory. To designate this broader sphere of methodological problems, the term “systems approach” is used, which has been used since the 1970s. firmly entered the scientific use. Synonyms for this term are in the scientific literature: “system analysis”, “system method”, “system-structural approach”, “system-functional approach”, etc.
The development and application of a systemic approach to language is due to the general theory of systems by L. von Bertalanffy, within the framework of which not atomic, but holistic views on the nature of things became priority. As a result, in the works of this approach, the universal connection of phenomena could be successfully revealed. Nevertheless, atomic research gives its useful results as substant components of various systems. so, acting as a mediator of two opposite directions in the understanding of a sentence-utterance: compositional (atomic) and holistic, L.M. Kovaleva notes the need to study and the meaning of a word as a compositional unit of a sentence, without which there is neither a sentence nor the ability to interpret it, and the meaningful role of the word in a holistic sense — in the propositional structure of a sentence-statement, where the word expands / changes its meaning and the meaning of the statement as a whole [Kovaleva, 2010,
Currently, the concept of a system is used in almost any science. The very concept of “system” arose in ancient times, the word “system” in Greek means “composing” a whole from parts. Composing a whole from parts (substances), the researcher forms a system with its own internal organization — structure. There is no modern science, wherever a systems approach is used, although this approach has been known since ancient times.
Often the concept of a system interacts with the concept of structure, but these concepts are clearly distinguished: "A system should be understood as any complex unity consisting of interrelated or interdependent parts — elements embodied in a real substance and having a specific scheme of interconnections (relations), that is, a structure “[Melnikov, 1967, 98].
The concept of structure in the history of linguistics was absolutized by structuralists to such an extent that the substance, without which the existence of a system is impossible, was removed from the framework of scientific research. The question of what makes a system a system remains open. What is the backbone mechanism of language systems? What constitutes the taxonomy of a linguistic phenomenon?
The term “taxonomy” itself hides several meanings in its conceptual content. First of all, this term is based on the concept of a system, which in relation to a language means an integral set of linguistic elements. At a certain linguistic level, the system manifests itself in the fact that between its elements there is a set of relations that unites them in such a way that if one element undergoes change, then the balance of the entire system is disturbed [Dubois, 1994].
The system-forming mechanism as a methodological technique is not only promising in the study of deep internal connections of the constituent components of a linguistic object-system, but also a necessary link in any scientific linguistic research. In the new paradigm of knowledge, this mechanism is conceptual / cognitive, and in this regard, we are talking about the conceptual systematics of language, speech and speech activity.
1. Барт, Р. Основы семиотики I Р. Барт II Структурализм “за” и “против”. — М. : Прогресс, 1975.
2. Берталанфи, Л. фон Общая теория систем — критический обзор I Л. Берталанфи II Исследования по общей теории систем. — М. : Прогресс, 19б9.
3. Горбунова, И.В. Функционально-стратегический потенциал англицизмов в интернет-дискурсе : автореф. дис. ... канд. филолог, наук: