Haqberdieva Gulrukh Tolibovna,
teacher of English
at Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages,
Abstract: This article examines the issue of conceptual taxonomy of language, speech and speech activity as an object of linguistics with multiple examples.
Key words: linguistics, speech activity, speech, cognitive science, language categorization, research.
Currently, in connection with the rapid development of the ideas of cognitive science, the problems of categorization and conceptualization in language acquire undoubted relevance and significance in linguistic research. In fact, when studying any linguistic phenomenon, any linguistic category, any linguistic system, new results can be obtained. In the process of knowing the world, a person constantly categorizes his realities, i.e. systematizes them according to individual thinking ability. Categorization and conceptualization are inevitable operations for the human brain, since these cognitive processes are involved in human speech and thinking.
Before serving as a tool for communicating thoughts, language is for a person a reflection of the real world, allowing him to adapt in it. In this regard, the main tasks of modern linguistics, and, first of all, the theory of speech-thinking activity, are not only modeling the mental mechanism of understanding (perception) and production of speech, that is, decoding and encoding speech according to R. Jacobson [Jacobson, 1963], but also the formation of structures of linguistic knowledge, participating in the processing of thought received by a person information about the real world in order to adapt it to the environment [Kostyushkina et al., 2006]. In this respect, language is not so much a system for reflecting objective reality as a system of adaptation that develops in the process of human cognitive activity, an instrument of this process and the most important way of forming and presenting knowledge.
The structuring of mental content is related to language and its systems. This connection determines the pre-linguistic, conceptual content of the thinkable, which precedes its linguistic structuring in the language system and manifests itself at the moment of speech. Revealing the pre-linguistic content of the thinkable, its categorization, is an important problem of modern linguistics.
Today, more and more often one can come across the opinion that linguistics of the XXI century is the linguistics of speech activity. It is difficult to disagree with this if speech activity is viewed not after Saussure, but after Guillaume [Guillaume, 1992], as an integral that unites language and speech. In this regard, the object of linguistics is language, speech, and speech activity, although, at first glance, it seems that the main attention of linguists has shifted to speech and speech activity. However, this is not quite true. Let’s try to consider each component of the triad in the aspect that interests us.
Systematics of the language. At the present stage of the development of linguistic science, establishing a system in a language, a researcher cannot but take into account the data of other sciences adjacent to linguistics and not even adjacent to it. The ultimate goal of all sciences is the knowledge of the phenomena of real reality, and language for this purpose is almost the main methodological tool. Thanks to language and through it, a person comprehends the world. The processes of conceptualizing the world and categorizing knowledge leave their traces in the languages of the world. Each language manifests national identity and culture. It is in this vein that the systematization of linguistic phenomena, units, categories and entire systems takes place.
Speaking about the taxonomy of a language, I mean precisely its categorical and conceptual aspects. Therefore, the term “taxonomy” itself should be clarified by providing it with the definition “conceptual”, i.e. conceptual taxonomy of language. It is in this vein that language learning is going on today.
The categorization of all that exists, in particular the allocation of the categories of Space and Time, is an important milestone in a person’s speech-thinking and cognitive activity, in the construction of his linguistic picture of the world. The concepts of time and space are becoming more complicated with the development of mankind, with the accumulation of more and more knowledge about the surrounding and inner world of man and acquire new content. Human consciousness each time produces a kind of conceptualization and categorization of the realities of the surrounding world, depending on national ethno-, geo-, socio-, psycho- and other kinds of factors.
Of course, Space and the language of spatial relations are one of the main means of understanding the surrounding world. By highlighting a feature and generalizing a thing, thereby attributing it to a certain category, the word analyzes an object or phenomenon and carries the experience of generations that has developed in relation to this object or phenomenon in the history of society [Luria, 1998].
In this regard, many studies confirm that perception, and thereby cognition of Space and spatial relationships, has priority, is primary. In the study of ontogeny and phylogeny of different languages, it was noticed that primitive man first comprehended the categories associated with Space, and only after a long time the temporal categories.
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