Anorkulov Sanjar Iskandarovich,
teacher of German
at Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages,
This article is aimed at the study of absolute construction as one of the compilers of the semantic structure of English sentences. Such aspects of absolute construction as predicativity, modality and temporality are considered. An absolute construction is interpreted as a syntactic unit that implements the predicative categories of tense and modality in relation to the predicate verb of the main sentence, which determines its ability to function only as part of a polypredicative sentence.
Key words: absolute construction, propositivity, semantic structure, modality, predicativity, nominalization, deverbalization.
As it was mentioned in our previous studies, absolute constructions in English often fell into the focus of special linguistic studies, as a result of which various aspects of these constructions were analyzed [7, p. 57]. Most of the controversy among philologists is caused by questions about the predicativity of the absolute construction and the related categories of modality and temporality.
Speaking about the predicativity of an absolute construction, we point out that until now, predicativity has been interpreted as a distinctive feature of a sentence. According to many linguists, predicative relations are characteristic only of the semantic structure of a sentence, forming the type of sentence as a special linguistic unit [12, p. eleven].
There are many interpretations of predicativity in linguistic literature. As for our understanding of this phenomenon, we, following a number of modern researchers, consider predicativity as a category that expresses an event or fact of objective reality, and capable of actualization both in a sentence-statement and in any linguistic unit that has a propositive content. That is, predicativity is a functional-semantic category with propositive semantics [10, p. 23].
There is no doubt about the fact that a proposition is formed in the process of predication to reflect various situations of reality. Since the denotation of an absolute construction is a situation, this construction is characterized by the semantics of a proposition, which confirms its predicative nature. Nevertheless, the features of absolute constructions as units of propositive semantics determine the nature of predicative relations within them. From the point of view of paradigmatic syntax, absolute constructions arise as a result of establishing a direct derivational connection between a sentence, a syntactic component with an impersonal form of a verb and a noun phrase while maintaining their common nominative content [3, p. 112].
Sentences like ‘Herself a peasant, she could not believe this’ [13, p. 88] can be considered an intermediate stage on the path of transition from sentence to word, since here not only syntagmatic connections are rebuilt, but also the characteristics of the sentence as a communicative unit gradually disappear. Such transpositions in modern English lead to the formation of such constructions as complex object, independent participle, and other syntactic constructions with impersonal verb forms, often implicitly expressed.
When perceiving this or that reality situation, the individual independently determines the components that are most essential for him and selects the relevant proposition schemes for them. At the same time, there are often cases when for the representation of one situation there are several different schemes, clothed in a language shell.The most important condition is
In other words, in most cases in the text it is enough to use one sentence with a personal verb in the role of the so-called modal-temporal center of the situation, and convey all other propositional schemes using absolute structures that do not have their own modal-temporal plan, in which it is represented in "reflected"form. Nevertheless, if necessary, the modal and temporal semantics of absolute constructions can acquire a sufficiently identifiable independent expression.Moving on to considering the modality of an absolute construction in English, we note that the most common point of view among linguists is that modality and time in an absolute construction are relative, as a result of which they can only be determined based on the modal-time plan of the main sentence [2, p. 12].
Most often, the objective modality of an absolute construction is of a relative nature, due to the expression by the absolute construction of the same reality as the main sentence:Weather permitting, of course, we’ll go there tomorrow [13, c. 46].According to one point of view, modality is a distinctive feature of the entire sentence as a whole [8, p. 52]. There is another opinion that since modality expresses the attitude of the utterance to reality, to time, to the expression of the purpose of the utterance in relation to the addressee of speech, this category is characteristic of both the sentence and the absolute construction [1, p. 9].When there is a need for additional labeling of modality (most often subjective), the absolute construction can contain modal verbs and expressions, which can include impersonal forms (to be able, to have, to be, etc.).Often there are absolute constructions in which the means of expressing subjective modality with the semantics of necessity or assumption appear:It was very quiet in the apartment, perhaps everyone out of the house [13, c. 217] (the semantics of the sentence).
Speaking about the temporal aspect of the absolute construction, we note that due to the inextricable connection with objective modality, this category acts as a category forming predicativity. However, predicativeness cannot be equated with the timeline of a certain syntactic construction.It is important to note that text, or event, time (as opposed to calendar time) is not always projected onto the chronological axis. One of the important conditions for constructing a text is the relational relationship of its predicates (both free and connected) in terms of simultaneity / time difference, precedence / succession [5, p. 87].
In English, the functional-semantic field of temporality consists of a microfield of absolute personal temporal localization and relative temporal localization, the first of which is the location of an action on a personal, individual time axis with the moment of speech as a reference point. At the linguistic level, this type of temporal localization is expressed with the help of all personal forms of the verb, since by their main semantics they have an action relative to the moment of speech in the spheres of the present, past and future.Relative temporal localization of the described situation in linguistics is interpreted as the definition of the temporal coordinate of an action or event by correlating it with another action, event, phenomenon, a situation serving as a starting point. This type of temporal localization is characterized by the invariability of the temporal assessment, the truth of which does not depend on the course of time [11, p. 126].The temporal characteristics of complicated sentences with absolute constructions are influenced by the presence of at least two predicative lines, connected in a certain way in time. The point of view is quite widespread that the components of such sentences are unequal in terms of the implementation of semantic functions. This is explained by the fact that the main sentence implements the function of absolute personal temporal localization, and the time plan of the absolute construction in a complicated sentence is determined by the time plan of the inclusive sentence.In this case, the situation described in the absolute construction and the situation nominated in the main sentence can relate to each other in different ways in time, that is, in this case, we can talk about the function of relative temporal localization.
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