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TURKISMS IN ENGLISH

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Автор(ы): Насруллаев Жавохирхон Равшанхонович, Рахимова Зулфизар Сухробовна
Рубрика: Филологические науки
Журнал: « Евразийский Научный Журнал №12 2020»  (декабрь, 2020)
Количество просмотров статьи: 80
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Nasrullaev Javohirkhon Ravshankhonovich,
Deputy Dean of English Faculty-II,
Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages, Uzbekistan

Rakhimova Zulfizar Sukhrobovna,
2nd year student of English Faculty-II,
Samarkand State Institute of Foreign Languages, Uzbekistan

Abstract: This article examines the issue of borrowed words into English by means of the Turkic languages that are still used in the modern language.

Key words: Turkisms, language, sociolinguistics, borrowings

Contacts of peoples are impossible without contacts of languages, which is most clearly manifested in borrowing. The languages of the Turkic peoples have left many traces in a variety of languages. There are also many Turkisms in the English language, which is of world importance. According to various sources, there are from 10 to 800. We consider the most accurate figure to be 400, and 55% are ethnographic realities, 26 relate to social and political vocabulary, 19% are natural realities. These borrowings are included in scientific terminology, are found mainly in socio-political and special literature, so most words are known to a rather narrow circle of people.

Direct contacts between the British and the Turks were resumed only during the time of the Crusades. From 1096 to 1270, the Europeans undertook eight campaigns in Palestine to “free the Holy Sepulcher”. The main enemy that the crusaders had to face were the Turks, or, as they were called in the West, the Saracens. Interestingly, in English, buckwheat is still called the Saracen cereal, which directly indicates the source of the borrowing. The Europeans, fighting in Syria and Palestine with the Saracen Turks, extended this Turkic name to all Muslims, including the Arabs of Syria, Palestine and Egypt, as a result of which the majority of etymological dictionaries the word sara-sep is referred to as Arabic borrowings. This is one of the mistakes typical of European linguists in identifying the etymology of one or another Orientalism. It does not even occur to them that the Arabic or Persian languages (the languages of such ancient cultures) could borrow something from the Turks. Meanwhile, in the Arabic and Persian languages there are significant layers of the Turkic vocabulary.

Many Turkisms came to English through Arabic, Persian and Indian languages. European etymologists usually do not take into account the influence that contacts with the Turks had on these languages. The first Turkic settlers in Egypt and Syria were the Oguz tribes of the Turkmens. Starting from the 10th century, the Kipchak tribes arrived in Egypt by various routes, gradually changing the linguistic situation; As a result of the coming to power of the Mamluk Sultan Aibek in 1250, Kipchak became the state language of Egypt, and until 1517 literature in the Kipchak-Oguz language flourished.

One of the ways of penetration of the Turkisms into the English language was the borrowing of Indian words by them. Moreover, this process took place most intensively in the 16th century, when the first English trading posts were founded in India, and from the 19th century, when India became a colony of the British Empire. Forty words of Turkic origin got into English from various Indian languages.

Over sixty Turkisms penetrated into the English language through the mediation of the Russian language, a few words were borrowed from Polish. The Turkisms coach, haiduk, kivasz, vampire came to English from Hungarian through the mediation of German and French. One of the most used Turkisms in the meaning of “large covered cart” is the word coach (it has many other meanings: carriage, car, coach, tutor, etc.). Most etymological dictionaries indicate that the original source of this word is the name of the Hungarian village of Kócs, but even in the Old Russian language, the Turkic borrowing “koch” was known, meaning a large covered cart, which later began to be called a wagon.

Turkisms passed into English from German, Spanish, Latin, Italian. Most of them are borrowed from French — badiari, caique, caviar, adalis-quer sabot, turkuoise. Direct contacts of native French speakers with the Turks began in the era of the Crusades. During the period of intensification of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire (XIV-XVI centuries), many French, Spaniards and Italians were in the service of the Turks. In 1536 France and Turkey signed a union treaty. Trade, consular and judicial privileges were granted to French subjects. Admiration for the luxury and wealth of the Ottoman Empire caused the phenomenon of Turkophilism in Europe. The interest in Turkey was so great that in the first half of the 16th century alone, over 900 scientific papers about Turkey were written in Europe. Naturally, under such conditions, many Turkisms appeared in French and other European languages.

In the XIX century Turkisms, mainly of Turkish origin, are beginning to penetrate not only through descriptions of travelers, diplomats and merchants, but also through the press. In 1874, two newspapers in English were printed in Istanbul — “The Levant Herald” and “The Levant Times”. Borrowings from the Turkish language make up the majority of the Turkisms that got into the English language. This is due to the fact that of all the Turkic states, it was the Central Asian countries that had the most intense and widespread ties with England.

In the English language there are many Turkisms, borrowed from direct contacts of the British with other Turkic peoples — Uzbeks, Azerbaijanis, Tatars, and Kazakhs. In 1558, English merchants visited Bukhara and Samarkand, Kazan, Astrakhan, the Mangyshlak peninsula, Baku, opening the way for a large number of travelers. In 1625, the impressions of a trip in the Caspian Sea by Anthony Shirley and Williams Paris were published.

THE LIST OF USED LITERATURE:

  1. Turkiy filologiyaga kirish ma`ruza matni // library.ziyonet.uz
  2. Zbigniev, G. (1959). The influence of Turkish upon the Macedonian Slavonic Dialects, Folia Orientalia, Vol. L.
  3. Filan, K. (2001). “Language-Culture Relation: Its Significance in Turkish Language Education in Bosnia”, Council of Europe 2001 European Years of languages, 24-27 ekim 2001, Ankara.
  4. Granes, A. (1996). Turco-Bulgarica, Articles in English and French concerning Turkish influence on Bulgarian, Wiesbaden.