Khayitova Feruza Abdikhalikovna,
Teacher of Termez State University,
Faculty of Foreign languages
Toponyms (place names) represent language units denoting elements of topographic environment. The relevance of the study is caused by the need to develop the theory of toponymy and to systematize all the existing toponymic classifications. Place names have a complicated (multidimensional) nature, which should be taken into account while classifying them. This research is an attempt to highlight various principles according to which it is possible to group the place names.
Key words: toponymy, classification, hydronyms, oronyms, place names, urbanity, microtoponymy, microtoponyms and anthroposophia.
It is difficult to imagine the modern world without geographical names. Each toponym carries a variety of information: historical, geographical, and linguistic, since geographical names are evidence of the historical conditions of the epochs when they arose, formed, and spread in certain countries.
Despite the long history of research and the presence of a significant number of works devoted to the study of toponyms, there are still many problems that complicate the interpretation of toponyms, controversial issues related to determining the sources of toponyms and requiring more attention not only from linguists, but also historians.
The purpose of this article is to explore the features of English place names . Within the framework of onomastics, a separate science can be distinguished — toponymy. Toponymy studies proper names that denote the names of geographical objects, their origin, development, current state, spelling and pronunciation. A set of toponyms of a particular area is called a toponymy.
In modern linguistics there are two classifications of toponyms: a) by the type of geographical features designated; b) by structure.
According to the first classification are the following types of toponyms: hydronyms, oronyms, place names, urbanity, microtoponymy, the microtoponyms and anthroposophia.
Hydronyms are names of water bodies (rivers, lakes, seas, bays, Straits, channels, etc.) and have a very high linguistic and historical value, because the names of water bodies have been preserved for centuries and millennia and are little changed.
The next type-oronyms (from the Greek oros — mountain) denote the names of mountains (the Grampians, Pennines).
The names of small localities are allocated to another group, which is called oikonyms (from the Greek. oikos-dwelling, dwelling). These include the villages (Cuxton, Buttsole, Five Oak Green) and the towns of Crayford, Earlswood, Great Torrington).
Urbanonyms (from the Latin urbanus — urban) that denote the names of inner-city objects are divided into several types: godonyms (from Greek. hodos — path, road, street, riverbed) — street names (Baker Street, Lime Street, Whitehall), agoronyms (from the Greek agora — square) — names of squares (Trafalgar Square, Piccadilly Circus) and dromonyms (from the Greek dromos — running, movement, path) — names of communication routes (Fosse WayIcknield Way, Broxden Roundabout).
Macrotoponyms (from the Greek makros-big) these are proper names that indicate the names of large geographical objects. First of all, these are the names of countries or historical regions, provinces (France, Germany, Russia). Microtoponymy is usually correlated with ethnonyms (Bulgarians — Bulgaria, Saxons — Saxony).
The names of small unpopulated objects or microtoponyms (from the Greek mikros — small) include physical and geographical or inner-city (meadows, fields, groves, streets, land, tracts, haymaking, pasture, swamp, woodlands, burning, pasture, well, key, pool, threshold, etc.) objects.
According to the structural (morphological) classification, toponyms are divided into 4 types: a) simple, b) derived, c) complex, d) composite.
Toponyms are of interest not only for linguistics, but also for history, geography, and culture, so toponymy has a long history of research and a significant number of works devoted to the study of toponyms.