Khayitova Feruza Abdixalikovna
Uzbekistan, Termez State University
Selection of the most fruitful learning strategy is the key to effective English language learning. Strategies are steps taken by students to improve their own learning. “Strategies are especially important for language learning because they are tools for active, self -directed involvement, which is essential for developing communicative competence. Appropriate language learning strategies result in improved proficiency and greater self -confidence” (Oxford, 1990:1) .
From among of the strategies described in this paragraph we are of the opinion that metacognitive strategies are the most fruitful learning strategies for adult learners because metacognition is fundamental component of skills that involve decision making, problem solving, reflective judgment and critical thinking. Older learners are very good in solving and analyzing problems, but also in decisions making and critical thinking. Adults are also more able to control their emotions, cope with conflicts and handle complexity. Although mature learners are characterized by metacognitive strategies, it is important to “flex cognitive muscles” and apply metacognitive knowledge to new situations. As adults we use knowledge in a strategic manner in order to meet a goal. It is getting to know how to do a task or set of tasks and then making sure that it is done correctly.
There are number of metacognition models and this strategy is the central component of several skills: critical thinking, reflective judgment, problem solving and decision making. Adults, who can be described as self- regulated learners, are aware of their advantages and disadvantages and realize whether they know some fact and possess some skill or not. We believe that metacognitive strategies are the most fruitful learning strategies for adult learners because they are highly motivated to learning and even when they encounter obstructions they are able to find a way to succeed. When they need information, they are determined to find and master it. For adult learners, it is clear that they must monitor their own progress and effectiveness of their learning strategies. Mature students are taking responsibility for their own learning and recognition of usefulness and meaning of information to be learned. They treat teaching as a systematic process than can and must be controlled. Adults can be treated as consumers who want to receive maximum benefit from their learning experiences. Mature learners also meet metacognition in their workplaces where importance of being responsible for and conscious of the consequences of one’s actions is emphasized. Adult students who are characterized by metacognitive strategies perform good in class and they are great problem — solvers, critical thinkers and decision makers. We believe that metacognitive training can increase sense of responsibility of adult learners’ own progress and help them become mo re self — confident. Metacognitive training will also provide motivation for learning and make them feel empowered also in their work and family life. Knowledge is much better absorbed in real — word situations because students learn how the acquired knowledge can be used in solving everyday problems. That is why learning environment should contain the real world elements. Metacognitive skills are essential for English language learning, so adequately taught adult learners can achieve great results in learning this language.
The theme of this thesis is teaching adults which is very a responsible and challenging issue. At the beginning, the definition of teaching was analysed, which is not as obvious as it sounds. What is more, each author gives its different versions. Subsequently, various methods of teaching English were presented. These methods can be divided into conventional and unconventional ones