Termiz State University
Annotation: The Personal pronouns are defined as a group of words, which indicate person, people, or objects without naming them. Personal pronouns have their own semantic features . The speaker should take into consideration these features while using them. This article analyses some semantic features of personal pronouns in Indonesian language.
Key words: personal pronouns , meaning, cultural aspect.
Семантические особенности личных местоимений индонезийского языка.
Термезский Государственный Университет
Аннотация: Личные местоимения определяются как группа слов, которые обозначают человека, людей или предметы, не называя их. Личные местоимения имеют свои семантические особенности. Говорящий должен учитывать эти особенности при их использовании. В статье анализируются некоторые семантические особенности личных местоимений индонезийского языка.
Ключевые слова: личные местоимения, значение, культурный аспект.
The speaker refers himself or herself as ’I’ ( in case the speaker mentions the group ’we’ is used) the listener ’you’ and other participant as third person singular, or group of participants as third person plural. communicative persons The subjective (relative to the speaker) type of indication produced in each specific act of speech has a pragmatic coloration.
Personal pronouns are used as subject in the sentence.
Personal pronouns have common semantic and grammar features in different languages, but still differ in their specific features in structure and functioning.
Personal pronouns in Indonesian language are used to denote people and objects. In this language personal pronouns perform the action and considered to be subjects of the sentence.
Personal pronouns in Indonesian language:
Saya — I (formal)
Aku — I (informal)
Kamu — you ( informal)
Anda — you (formal)
Kita — We (inclusive)
Kami — We (exclusive)
Kalian — you (plural)
Mereka — they
From the list of personal pronouns in Indonesian language it is obvious that there is no gender category. This feature of personal pronouns in Indonesian language is similar to personal pronouns in Uzbek language, where third person singular denoted with the “U” pronoun for masculine and feminine. Unlike English language, where “he” stands for third person singular /masculine/ and “she” stands for third person singular /feminine/, besides there is “it” pronouns denoting third person singular / neutral/ ( used to denote animals or inanimate objects). In colloquial and formal speech there are particular words denoting lexicalized biological gender concept. A short list of the words denoting gender specific feature of personal pronoun. Most of them have semantic pairs and represent the reflection of the cultural importance. Having all these attribute they can replace personal pronouns : second person singular " you" and third person singular “he” , “she” and “it”. Taking into consideration Indonesian language, gender is lexically expressed in the terms for the two central notions in traditional Indonesian society: age or social status and gender. For example:
“Bapak” — ’father’ ( usually written with the capital letter) ’Mr., Sir.’
“Bapak” is usually used while talking to elder male person, instead of “anda”
or while talking about elder male person, in that case “Bapak” replaces “dia” /he/ personal pronoun. “Pak” is short and more casual form of “Bapak”.
“Ibu” — ’mother’ ( usually written with the capital letter) ’Mrs., Madame’
“Ibu” is usually used while talking to elder female person, instead of “anda”
or while talking about elder female person, in that case “Ibu” replaces “dia” /she/ personal pronoun. “Bu” is short and more casual form of “Ibu”.
— Ibu, berapa harganya ikan itu?
— Saya ingin beli ikan dari Ibu (bu)
/Madam, how much is that fish?/
/I want to buy a fish from you /
Boleh tanya balik nggak pak?
Bapak beli buku ini darimana pak?
/Can I ask you back ( sir)?/
/Where did you buy this book, sir?/
Another difference is present of honorific “YOU” in Uzbek and Indonesian languages:
In Uzbek language “Siz” is used while referring to adults and strangers. It is not acceptable to “sen” when talking to elders. If the speaker does so it is considered impolite.
The same concept can be seen in Indonesian language “kamu” is used while talking to friends and younger people. “Anda” is used when talking to elders and strangers.
These examples show how much impact on usage of the personal pronouns and sentence form itself have culture in these two languages. If the speech is considered impolite it is not acceptable. So, it is really important avoid confusing these pronouns.
According to the description that was provided above, it can be concluded that the use of personal pronouns in Indonesian language mostly depends on the speaker and the listener, and relationship between them. We should take into consideration not only grammar and lexical features of personal pronouns, but also their semantic characteristics such as: considering features as politeness and kinship. Besides there is similarity of using personal pronouns in Uzbek and Indonesian languages to form a pattern to designate politeness. For example, " Siz" is more polite than “sen”. This denotes a culture of society that use polite form of the word. Likewise in Indonesian there is a level of politeness in the use of pronouns. For example, the word “anda” is more polite than the words “kamu, — mu, and kau ”. At this level, languages denote age, morals and habits. This is why culture influences the languages enough. Besides, having a level of politeness, language also has a meaning of kinship. This can be found in the use of pronouns of the two languages above. In Indonesian, the word “kamu” is usually more directed towards kinship that is found among fellow youths. Fellow youths will feel strange when they called ’anda’. It also sharpens the emotional feeling between the two. For people who are not yet known, usually people use the word “anda” rather than " kamu or kau“.