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NEW ENGLISH BORROWINGS IN UZBEK OFFICIAL-BUSINESS DOCUMENTS

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Автор(ы): Худайкулов Абдулла Эшкуватович
Рубрика: Филологические науки
Журнал: «Евразийский Научный Журнал №5 2020»  (май, 2020)
Количество просмотров статьи: 291
Показать PDF версию NEW ENGLISH BORROWINGS IN UZBEK OFFICIAL-BUSINESS DOCUMENTS

Khudaykulov A.E.
Теrmez State University, Uzbekistan

Abstract

The given article deals with the official documents` language in Uzbek language. The penetration and assimilation of English borrowings in Uzbek official documents are analyzed.

Key words: borrowings, English, Uzbek, official, business, documents, assimilation.

Borrowing of lexical units — one of the prime examples of the interaction of the languages and cultures, creation of the general values. No such language, which had not unoriginal words. There is, however, such languages, which played and play the greater role in spreading the words, mainly — research and public-political terminology. In past such role in Europe played Greek and Latin, but later French and German languages. Presently, such role execute, first of all, English and Russian [3, p.188-201].

Borrowing of lexical units can occur spoken and written way. In the event of borrowing by spoken way, the words are completely assimilated in language. The borrowings which came by writing, mostly save their own phonetic, spelling and grammatical particularities. L.P.Krysin considered that borrowing in language be reproduced phonetic and morphological facility of one language of the morphemes, words or word-combinations of the other language [4, p. 65 −73].

The most linguists began studying the reason of foreign borrowings in the beginning of the XX century. They consider that the main reason for borrowing is naming things and notions [2, 355-356; 4, 233-240]. Also they highlighted four main reasons of appearing lexical borrowings in the world languages. They are connected with: borrowing of new things or notions with duplicating already existing words in the language for using.

M.A. Breiter notes that about 15% of the latest English words are borrowed due to the lack of a corresponding name in the receiving language. They include: “детектор” (валют), топ-модель, виртуал, инвестор, дайджест, спонсор, спрей. These borrowings also include those borrowings that, for some reason (easier to pronounce, in short, more specifically in terms of semantics) supplanted previously mastered or original Russian language units, for example прайс-лист (instead of прейскурант), имидж (instead of образ). [ 1, p.113-127].

The English have identified a number of styles of literary language: the official-business style, the style of science and technology, newspaper and journalistic style, the style of everyday communication.

Official-business style (language of diplomacy, laws, business papers, business correspondence) is equal in rights with other styles and plays an important role in formation and development of literary language. The features of official — business style are the objective fact of language, their application in the texts of the documents naturally and is fixed by tradition. The infringement of functional — style norm is considered when used language means, inherent in business style, which contradict the requirement of logicality, accuracy and brevity of language of business papers and documents.

As professor I.R. Galperin mentioned: “Official documents are written in a formal, “cold” or matter-of-fact style of speech. The style of official documents, or ‘officialese’ as it is sometimes called, is not homogeneous and is represented by the following sub-styles, or varieties:

1. The language of business documents;

2. The language of legal documents;

3. The language of diplomacy;

4. The language of military documents.

Like other styles of language, this style has a definite communicative aim and accordingly has its own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. The main aim of this type of communication is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking. These parties may be:

a) The state and the citizen;

b) A society and its members;

c) Two or more enterprises or bodies (business correspondence or contracts);

d) Two or more governments (pacts, treaties);

e) A person in authority and a subordinate (orders, regulations, authoritative directions);

f) The board or presidium and the assembly or general meeting (procedures acts, minutes), etc.

The language of official-business style is very specific and may include: internationalisms, terms, professionalisms, non-terminological words, nouns and etc. Among them linguistic borrowings from other languages play an important role.

The penetration history of English borrowings into Uzbek is closely tied with Russian language, which influenced greatly in the development of Uzbek vocabulary at the end of XIXth and in XXth century. The first English words came into Uzbek through Russian. Now English borrowing can be found in any sphere of modern Uzbek. Particularly, official-business documents of Uzbek language include many English borrowings, which play an important role in learning foreign languages. Official documents can be good example of sources for linguistic analyses, as they may indicate the exact time of their penetration, semantic, graphical and grammatical assimilation in receiving language.

Analyses of official documents showed that, Uzbek language has borrowed many different lexical elements from English during it`s development, including international words and newly borrowed units: билль, стэндстил, демпинг, трэмпинг, инагурация, спикер, электорат, холдинг, импичмент and many others.

“.... Хуллас, ушбу ҳужжатлар, шундай қилиб, инсон хуқуқлари тўғрисидаги халқаро билль бўлиб қолди” [5].

"..... у ҳолда 40-моддада баён қилинган стэндстил бўйича ШҲБ қоидалари бузилади "[6. P.82].

"Демпинг ўзида мамлакатнинг маҳсулоти бошқа мамлакат бозорига "нормал қиймат“дан паст бўлган “экспорт” нархда тушган ҳолдаги нарх камситишини ифодалайди“. [6. P.55]

“Шунингдек, трэмпинг деб аталадиган, солинадиган ва қўйиладиган юкларни идишсиз транспортда ташиш очиқ рақобат муҳити шароитларида амалга оширилиши керак” [6. P.73].

Whereas the words, such as билль, тендер, демпинг, инагурация, спикер, электорат, холдинг, консалтинг, импичмент are considered as internationalisms, the words стэндстил and трэмпинг are newly borrowed.

The analyses of official-business documents showed that, most of above mentioned English words already assimilated in the Uzbеk language. For example, the word тендер form different compounds:

тендер объекти — " тендер объекти — корхона ва акцияларнинг аниқ пакети".

очиқ (ёпиқ) тендер — " ... ўтказилиш усулига кўра тендер очиқ ёки ёпиқ бўлиши мумкин. Очиқ тендерда хоҳиш билдирган барча юридик ва жисмоний шахслар... . Ёпиқ тендер олдиндан белгиланган ...“.

тендер иштирокчиси — ‘...тендер иштирокчиси(даъвогар)  тендер шартларига кўра танловда қатнашиш учун қўйилган юридик ва жисмоний шахслар ёки уларнинг бирлашмалари’.

тендер ташкилотчиси — ” тендерни тайёрлаш тендер ташкилотчиси ёки унинг топшириғига кўра махсус ташкил этиладиган комиссия томонидан амалга оширилади“.

тендер ҳужжати — тендер ҳужжати тендер ўтказиш тўғрисида билдиришнома, Тендер ўтказиш қоидаси ва Ахборот меморандумида иборат ҳужжатлар мажмуи... ”.

тендер комиссияси — “...тендер комиссияси тендерни ёпиш муддатини кейинга суришга ёки тендерни бекор қилишга ҳақлидир”.

тендер таклифи — тендер таклифи — тендер ҳужжатларида белгиланадиган шартларда аниқ тендер мақсадига нисбатан шартнома тузиш таклифи”.

тендер шартлари — “...озиқ-овқат маҳсулотлари импортини нодавлат мулкчилик шаклларига асосланган ташқи савдо фирмалари тендер шартлари асосида амалга оширадилар”.

Students who deal with official documents should know the meaning and etymology of borrowed words in order to use them correctly and effectively, as they enrich their vocabulary and help them learning foreign languages.

So the actual circumstance requires: 1) Introduction in a revolution of new sources; 2) New approach to drawing up of the teaching — methodical manuals on the language of official-business documents.

In the sanction of the given problem the important role belongs to the research of the official documents of English-Uzbek correspondences.

LITERATURE:

  1. Брейтер, М. А. (1997). Англицизмы в русском языке: история и перспективы: Пособие для иностранных студентов-русистов. Владивосток, Диалог-МГУ, 199719.
  2. Давлятова, Э. М. (2017). Заимствование в контексте лингвокультур. Евразийский научный журнал, (2), 355-356.
  3. Кодухов, В. И. (2011). Общее языкознание. Кн. дом “ЛИБРОКОМ”.
  4. Крысин, Л. П. (1968). Иноязычные слова в современном русском языке.
  5. Инсон ҳуқуқлари тўғрисидаги халқаро билль (1992).
  6. Шериклик ва ҳамкорлик тўғрисидаги битим бўйича қўлланма(2003).