Khayitova Feruza Abdikhalikovna,
Termez State University.
Today, it has become mandatory for the academicians to rethink their teaching strategies with the changing times. Since there has been a constant change in the teaching methods and techniques all over the world in every subject, vocabulary teaching methods and techniques need desirable and radical changes in a view of the demanding job market in the globalized world.
Vocabulary of a language is just like bricks for constructing a building. Like bricks, they are vital for the building of a language. Language is made up of words. If we want to use language effectively, we must have good stock of vocabulary. We cannot use the language, if we don’t know the words of that language. English language has vast vocabulary. It is the richest language of the world. One cannot learn a language without learning vocabulary. Therefore, the study of vocabulary has occupied the central place in teachinglearning activities. “If you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see most improvement, if you learn more words and expressions. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words.” This speaks volumes about the significance of vocabulary in learning, developing and enriching English. Even, Wilkins rightly says, “Without grammar very little can be conveyed....but without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”.
Vocabulary is a very important means to express our thoughts and feeling, either in spoken or written form. Indeed, neither literature nor language exists without vocabulary. John Drink Water rightly says that words are the bricks the bricks with which the poetry and the literature of the world have been built. It is mainly through using words that we compose and express our thoughts to others. We can tackle our own task through words. It shows words are powerful tools.
Famous imperialist poet, Rudyard Kipling says that words are the most powerful drug used by mankind. Those who are rich in vocabulary can speak and write English correctly. Therefore, the study of vocabulary is at the center while learning a new language. English being a second language or foreign language, one needs to learn vocabulary in the systematic way.
In fact, without vocabulary communication in a second or foreign language is not possible in a meaningful way. McCarthy (1990) argues: ’No matter how well the student learns grammar, no matter how successfully the sounds of L2 are mastered, without words to express a wide range of meanings, communication in an L2 just cannot happen in any meaningful way’. Vocabulary is needed for expressing meaning and in using the receptive (listening and reading) and the productive (speaking and writing) skills.
The prominent role of vocabulary knowledge in second or foreign language learning has been recently recognized by the theorist and researcherd in the field. Accordingly, numerous types of approaches, techniques, exercises and practice to teach vocabulary. Nation properly states that teaching vocabulary should not only consist of teaching specific words but also aims at equipping learners with strategies necessary to expand their vocabulary knowledge. By showing actual objects and showing models It is a very useful technique to teach vocabulary to the beginners. The names of many things can be taught by showing actual objects. It gives real experience and sense to the learners. The words like pen, chalk, table, chair, football, flowers, tomato etc. can be taught in the classroom. Real 380 objects or models of real objects are very effective and meaningful in showing meanings but in handling of real objects, a teacher must be practical and should not be superfluous. It is neither possible nor necessary to bring all the things in the classroom. Therefore, some words are to be taught by showing models. They are easily available in the market. They are inexpensive too. Hence, teacher should make frequent use of such models to teach vocabulary. For example, the words like tiger, brain, elephant, aero planet etc. can be shown to the learner. Using demonstrations and showing pictures Teacher can perform some words. It can be fun and frolic. It makes the class student-centered. Teacher can act and learners try to imitate it. For example, the words like jump, smile, cry, nap, sleep, and dance can be demonstrated. Miming works well with younger students. You can mime out emotions and everyday activities to teach new words. This method can be practiced at ease. It can win the favors of the students as learners like dramatizations and can easily learn through them. Many situations can be dramatized or demonstrated.This works well with young students or students studying a foreign language to help introduce them to new concepts.