Бобожонова Муниса Мухаммадшукур кизи,
Самаркандского государственного института иностранных языков,
Abstract: Adults come to receive additional language education, as they have an interest in learning a language and motivation for its improvement. However, they face psychological and language barriers. Psychological barriers are stress that occurs in adults when learning a language, fear, increased personal and situational anxiety, high expectations of results, as well as psychological characteristics of the students themselves: their temperament, attention, memory and imagination. All this must be considered when teaching a foreign language. Linguistic difficulties, grammatical and lexical, are explained by the features of a foreign language as a subject. Unlike other subjects, it is both a goal and a learning tool.
Keywords: motivation, professional competence, psychological barriers, language barriers, universal classification of the predicate, selection of language material.
Since the paradigm of modern education is not “education for life”, but “education through life”, many adults who already have higher education continue to study, receiving additional or second higher education. In particular, the desire to learn a foreign language is explained by many reasons, among which a special place is occupied by the growing requirements for the professional competence of specialists, where knowledge of a foreign language becomes one of the main conditions for the specialist’s competitiveness. Students come to receive additional education, as they have an interest in learning a foreign language and motivation to improve it. Many psychologists believe that the previously existing opinion that it is more difficult for an adult to learn new knowledge is wrong — a high learning potential remains at all stages of life. Moreover, constant mental work, the involvement of the individual in educational activity maintains a high level of psychophysiological functions, and education is one of the key conditions for the mental health of an adult.
Adults approach the educational process consciously, having a high degree of motivation: they engage diligently and disciplined, since the decision to continue education, as a rule, is taken consciously. Adult education is usually aimed at solving a specific problem and achieving a specific goal, which is caused by a life situation. Also, adults have life and professional experience and knowledge acquired at the stages of previous education. “Adults understand why they come to get an education. They perceive themselves as an independent, independent person and want to take part in the learning process themselves. They have already formed ideas about themselves and the world around them. They value their life experience and want to rely on it in the learning process. They need practical answers to the questions that life poses before them”. Motives and interests are the most important factors contributing to the success of the training. Motivation is precisely the driving force that gives hope for success.
Even with strong motivation and interest in learning a language, students should know that they will have to overcome some linguistic and psychological barriers to language acquisition.
Let’s start with the psychological barriers. Almost all foreign language learners, especially students of technical universities who are used to completely different subjects, to a different presentation of material, experience stress to one degree or another. The concept of “stress” was introduced by G. Selye in 1936. He defines stress as “the nonspecific response of the body to any demand made against it.” Stress is a state of mental stress caused by the performance of an activity in, particularly difficult conditions. Such an activity may be the study of a foreign language since to master it you need to make considerable willful efforts, and since a foreign language is an object that differs from all other educational subjects. It is both a “goal and a means of learning” [3,
· the social aspect, which is associated with fear of public speaking;
· anxiety caused by the need to use the language as a means of communication when the corresponding automatisms have not yet been formed, but you need to know what to say and how to say it;
· anxiety associated with the fear of getting a low rating, being criticized by the teacher.
On the other hand, students who come to receive additional education have an overestimated expectation of results. It seems to them that their expectations are not met since they cannot easily express in a foreign language everything that they can say in Uzbek. This is often perceived by them as a failure or as an inability to speak a foreign language, which is also a kind of psychological barrier.
Other psychological characteristics of students include their abilities, memory, attention, imagination. The adult’s memory and attention must be trained, as with age, they begin to weaken. This training becomes especially necessary when an adult begins to work not quite familiar to himself. So, for example, an engineer can have excellent professional memory. However, when it comes to a foreign language, his memory can change him. If in the usual type of activity this specialist trains his memory, then under other circumstances his “intellectual muscles” may turn out to be completely untrained.
In addition to psychological barriers that prevent the acquisition of a foreign language, there are language barriers. These are the features of the grammatical structure of a foreign language, which can significantly differ from the native one, complex grammatical phenomena, and a variety of vocabulary. There are many ways to remove language barriers. This is a presentation of grammatical material in simple and understandable schemes, a clear and accessible classification of a predicate, thematically organized and dosed presentation of vocabulary. The authors attempted to create a simple unified classification of the English predicate, which helps students find the predicate, determine its boundaries and type, understand what it expresses and correctly translate it.
Careful selection of lexical material is also very important for the removal of language difficulties. It is the correct selection of language material that helps to remove psychological difficulties for students who receive the additional qualification “Translator in the field of professional communication” at a technical university. In the lesson, a “meeting” of the learner’s personality and material should occur, which should arouse the learner’s interest, help overcome language and psychological barriers, expand the learner’s horizons, and promote personality development.